The new publication, The Social Life of Politics, by Dr Sian Lazar of Cambridge University, examines the intimate, personal, and family dimensions of two political activist groups: the Union of National Civil Servants (UPCN) and the Association of State Workers (ATE).
In 1951 Sherwood Washburn , a former student of Hooton, introduced a "new physical anthropology."  He changed the focus from racial typology to concentrate upon the study of human evolution, moving away from classification towards evolutionary process. Anthropology expanded to include paleoanthropology and primatology .  The 20 th century also saw the modern synthesis in biology: the reconciling of Charles Darwin ’s theory of evolution and Gregor Mendel ’s research on heredity. Advances in the understanding of the molecular structure of DNA in the and the development of chronological dating methods opened doors to understanding human variation, both past and present, more accurately and in much greater detail.
Weber made much of Kant’s dualistic conception of the human faculties, the division between form arising from the operations of the mind itself and substance or perception of the material world through the senses. In his magisterial Economy and Society (1922), he argued that not only were the formal and substantive rationalities of capitalism different, but they were at odds. The ‘bottom line’ of accountancy for profit could, and often did, lead to economic failure (unemployment and the like) at the cost of disruption to people’s livelihood. This was an attempt to resolve ‘the Battle over Methods’ ( Methodenstreit ) then being waged between Schmoller’s historical economists in Berlin and the followers of Menger’s marginalism in Vienna. Here, as in the debate over economic primitivism (Harry Pearson 1957, Heath Pearson 2000), what was at stake was the pretension of the new economics to offer a universal foundation for the pursuit of human welfare. Weber, as a liberal, was sympathetic to the subjective individualism of the new economics, but, as a sociologist, he could hardly discount the human disasters wreaked in its name. The vehemence of these German debates owed something to rivalry between the German and Austro-Hungarian empires for leadership of the German-speaking world. To some extent they were just academic turf wars. Schmoller managed to get Viennese economists excluded from German universities for a time. The Methodenstreit resurfaced in American economic anthropology after the Second World War as ‘the formalist-substantivist debate’ which peaked in the 1960s (Leclair and Schneider 1968).
Robert K. Merton (1910-2003) attempted to clarify the concept of function by distinguishing latent and manifest functions. Latent functions are those objective consequences of a cultural item which are neither intended nor recognized by the members of a society. Manifest functions are those objective consequences contributing to the adjustment or adaptation of the system which are intended and recognized by participants in the system (Kaplan and Manners 1972:58).
Because of the war, Benedict was not able to do fieldwork. She was struck with the task of uncovering Japanese personality without seeing Japanese people, social arrangements, and cultural expressions on their home ground (Modell 1983). In order to complete her task she read, went to movies, and talked to Japanese living in the United States. Modell states that Benedict discovered how diversely people arranged their lives and she also found the patterns in these arrangements (Modell 1983). Benedict’s book is not specifically about Japanese religion, economic life, politics, or the family; instead it examines Japanese assumptions about the conduct of life (Modell 1983:194).