When hydraulic fracturing methods are used, the total amount of waste water is amplified by the large volume of water and chemicals involved in the process. Drilling and fracking shale gas formations (like the Marcellus Shale) typically requires 3 to 6 million gallons of water per well, and an additional 15,000-60,000 gallons of chemicals, many of which are undisclosed to Federal regulators [ 10 , 11 ]. One government-sponsored report found that, from 2005 to 2009, 14 oil and gas companies used 780 million gallons of hydraulic fracturing products containing 750 chemicals and other components [ 12 ]. Another study identified 632 chemicals contained in fracking products used in shale gas extraction.
“Those who currently are outrunning the others in EVs will not necessarily continue to stay ahead,” he said.
The principle is simple and clear: you can’t really say you’re committed to the fight against climate change if you’re still funding oil, gas, and coal. Many global leaders including the leaders of the G20 nations, . Secretary General Ban Ki Moon , climate talks leader Christiana Figueres , economist Nicholas Stern , International Energy Association director Fatih Birol , former . Vice President Al Gore , OECD Secretary General Angel Gurría , and former BP CEO John Browne have spoken out against the ongoing practice of subsidizing fossil fuels with public funds. But until we break the grip of the fossil fuel industry over our energy policy, it will be much harder to make progress and eliminate subsidies.
Combined heat and power (CHP), also known as cogeneration , is the use of a thermal power station to provide both electric power and heat (the latter being used, for example, for district heating purposes). This technology is practiced not only for domestic heating (low temperature) but also for industrial process heat, which is often high temperature heat. Calculations show that Combined Heat and Power District Heating (CHPDH) is the cheapest method in reducing (but not eliminating) carbon emissions, if conventional fossil fuels remain to be burned.